Stud‐book of Origin of Konik polski breed


I. Preliminary remark

Rules and direc­ti­ves for bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions of the European Union in accor­dan­ce with the Commission Decision 92/353/EEC of 11 June 1992, which inc­lu­des the cri­te­ria for reco­gni­tion or legi­sla­tion of bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions and bre­eders’ asso­cia­tions, which esta­blish stud­bo­oks for ack­now­led­ged hor­ses of the Konik pol­ski bre­ed.

II. Introduction

  1. „Polish Horse Breeders Association” – Warsaw was reco­gni­sed as a bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tion, which keeps the Studbook of Origin of Konik pol­ski bre­ed, on the basis of the abo­ve deci­sion of the European Union,
  2. The Studbook of Origin of Konik pol­ski bre­ed is kept with the con­sent and by order of General Management of the depart­ment for Customer Protection and Animal Breeding of the European Committee.

III. Aims

The Studbook of Origin of Konik pol­ski bre­ed aims at achie­ving the fol­lo­wing goals:

  1. Preservation of the bre­ed
  2. Preservation of the ori­gi­nal featu­res, such as resi­stan­ce, low requ­ire­ments as to the keeping con­di­tions, gen­tle­ness, intel­li­gen­ce and endu­ran­ce
  3. Maintenance of vario­us possi­bi­li­ties of use
  4. Consistence of bre­eding work on the European sca­le, taking into acco­unt the main­te­nan­ce of gene­tic varia­bi­li­ty

IV. Directives

„Polish Horse Breeders Association” in Warsaw, Poland esta­bli­shed, in accor­dan­ce with point 3b of the Appendix to the Commission Decision 92/353/EEC, the fol­lo­wing direc­ti­ves:

  1. Registration of ori­gin / Criteria for entry to the Studbook
    1. Name of the hor­se
      1. Horse is named on the basis of tra­di­tion of the coun­try it is bred in. These rules must be given in the stud­bo­ok.
      2. Name of a hor­se sho­uld be deter­mi­ned whi­le making the descrip­tion of foals.
      3. Name of a hor­se is an impor­tant ele­ment of its iden­ti­fi­ca­tion and, in accor­dan­ce with the Council Directive 90/427/EEC, it can­not be chan­ged.
      4. In order to distin­gu­ish hor­ses with the same name, the con­se­cu­ti­ve num­ber sho­uld also be pro­vi­ded.
      5. In the case of elec­tro­nic mar­king of a hor­se, the code of a micro­chip can­not sub­sti­tu­te the name of the hor­se.
    2. Data rela­ted to the horse’s birth
      1. Date of birth.
      2. Place of birth.
      3. Country.
      4. Breeder.
      5. Sex.
      6. Colour deter­mi­na­tion inc­lu­ding tint or colo­ur varia­tion.
    3. Graphic and writ­ten descrip­tion of a hor­se, accor­dant with the Council Directive 90/427/EEC
      The fol­lo­wing iden­ti­fi­ca­tion featu­res sho­uld be taken into acco­unt whi­le mar­king a hor­se:
      1. mar­kings (sha­pe and size)
      2. hair whorls on the head, neck, trunk, legs
      3. colo­ur of the trunk, mane, legs and hoofs
      4. dor­sal strip, zebra stri­pes on legs and trunk
      5. pecu­lia­ri­ties e.g. scars
      6. num­ber bran­ded or fro­zen (in coun­tries whe­re it is allo­wed)
      7. micro­chip num­ber in the case when appli­ca­ble
    4. Measures
      Horses are measu­red not only to male iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, easier but also in order to pro­vi­de infor­ma­tion abo­ut the­ir body con­for­ma­tion (sha­pe), deve­lop­ment and possi­bi­li­ty of use. The fol­lo­wing measu­res sho­uld refer to adult indi­vi­du­als:
      1. stick measu­re: height at withers,
      2. tape measu­res: girth’s and cannon’s cir­cum­fe­ren­ce of the fore­leg.
    5. Marking / Branding / Microchips
      1. Horse mar­king, as well as the­ir gra­phic and word descrip­tion, serves the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion.
      2. The rules of mar­king by reco­gni­sed bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions must cor­re­spond to the legal stan­dards of bre­eding of a given coun­try, and must cor­re­spond to the regu­la­tions con­cer­ning pre­se­rva­tion of ani­mals.
      3. Branding by reco­gni­sed bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions must be uni­vo­cal­ly attri­bu­ta­ble, i.e. they must be cle­ar­ly distinc­ti­ve from bran­dings of other bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions.
      4. From and posi­tion of bran­dings, as well as the let­ters and num­bers used, sho­uld be repre­sen­ted gra­phi­cal­ly and in words.
      5. Electronic mar­king sho­uld not be limi­ted only to coding, but also the regi­ster of used chips sho­uld be kept.
    6. Verification of paren­ta­ge
      Since 2000 it has been neces­sa­ry to sub­mit the results of blo­od gro­up ana­ly­sis or the results of DNA ana­ly­sis in order to con­firm or veri­fy the paren­ta­ge. They are sub­mit­ted toge­ther with an appli­ca­tion for the entry to the stud book as well as for the hor­se pas­sport.
    7. Origin/Generations back
      1. A hor­se may be admit­ted as a bre­eding hor­se of this bre­ed only if both its parents have been regi­ste­red in the stud­bo­ok of Konik pol­ski bre­ed.
      2. Entire docu­men­ta­tion of pre­de­ces­sors can be kept using elec­tro­nic sys­tem.
      3. Offspring of cros­ses with other bre­eds can­not be regar­ded as bre­eding ani­mals.
      4. The record of the paren­ta­ge in the hor­se pas­sport is to be made in accor­dan­ce with the coun­try regu­la­tions.
    8. Further infor­ma­tion inc­lu­ded in the record of ori­gin
      1. name of reco­gni­sed bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tion, or reco­gni­sed bre­eders’ asso­cia­tion of this bre­ed
      2. name and signa­tu­re of a per­son autho­ri­sed to make records of hor­ses, as well as the pla­ce and date of making the record
      3. date of admis­sion or entry in the stud­bo­ok, as well as the date and cau­se of death
      4. the num­ber of entry or the num­ber of the stud­bo­ok, num­ber of hor­ses’ pas­sport and the num­ber of micro­chip (if appli­ca­ble)
  2. Description of the bre­ed
    1. Historical back­gro­und
      Konik pol­ski hor­se is a small, nati­ve, pri­mi­ti­ve bre­ed descen­ding direc­tly from the extinct wild Tarpan hor­se which inha­bi­ted the step­pe and forest‐steppe zones of Eastern and Middle‐Eastern Europe. This bre­ed evo­lved pri­ma­ri­ly under natu­ral envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions and reta­ined a num­ber of ori­gi­nal tra­its cha­rac­te­ri­stic for the wild ascen­dants. The name Konik pol­ski was intro­du­ced into the lite­ra­tu­re in the mid­dle of twen­ties by its disco­ve­rer and enthu­siast Professor Tadeusz Vetulani.
    2. Traits and uti­li­ty
      Particular advan­ta­ge­ous tra­its of Konik pol­ski hor­ses as good health, fer­ti­li­ty, low feeding requ­ire­ments, resi­stan­ce to harsh envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions, abi­li­ty to live on the­ir own and to adapt to dif­fe­rent envi­ron­ments endu­ran­ce, intel­li­gen­ce, and gen­tle­ness and firm gaits con­tri­bu­ted to the­ir wide­spre­ad use. Konik hor­se has been used first of all as draft hor­se on small peasant farms. Due to its excel­lent endu­ran­ce, rela­ti­ve­ly gre­at draft power and good hooves Konik pol­ski has also been used for light trans­port. Resistance and abi­li­ty to cope with unfa­vo­ura­ble envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions make the Konik pol­ski hor­se suita­ble for loose housing all‐year round. Its abi­li­ty to live close‐to‐nothing cau­sed that mili­ta­ry was inte­re­sted in Konik pol­ski hor­ses during the World Wars I and II and used them for mili­ta­ry off‐road trans­port. Konik pol­ski have also been used for recre­atio­nal riding, hip­po­the­ra­py, endu­ran­ce rides and as com­pa­nion ani­mal. Since the eigh­ties the Konik pol­ski hor­se has been used in some European coun­tries as gra­zing ani­mal for land­sca­pe cul­ti­va­tion.
    3. Area of ori­gin
      The area of ori­gin of Konik pol­ski hor­ses was Eastern part of Poland and for­mer­ly Polish Eastern ter­ri­to­ries which are belon­ging cur­ren­tly to Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. At pre­sent Konik pol­ski hor­ses spre­ad all over the coun­try, and as area of ori­gin the who­le ter­ri­to­ry of Poland may be regar­ded.
    4. Countries whe­re Konik pol­ski hor­ses are bred:
      Mainly Poland, to a les­ser extent: the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, UK.
    5. Utilization
      At pre­sent the Konik pol­ski hor­se may be regar­ded as multi‐purpose small hor­se suita­ble as draft hor­se for dif­fe­rent kind of work in far­ming, trans­port, ple­asu­re, recre­atio­nal riding, hip­po­the­ra­py, com­pa­nion ani­mal and land­sca­pe cul­ti­va­tion. The suita­bi­li­ty of Konik pol­ski hor­ses for the­se forms of uti­li­za­tion have been pro­ved in many coun­tries.
    6. Body con­for­ma­tion and the exte­rior typi­cal for the bre­ed
      As to the body con­for­ma­tion and exte­rior, among Konik pol­ski hor­ses both the indi­vi­du­als of a more pri­mi­ti­ve type with heavier heads and shor­ter neck and indi­vi­du­als of a more fine type with smal­ler heads, lon­ger neck and well for­med withers can be distin­gu­ished. The majo­ri­ty of hor­ses howe­ver belong to an inter­me­dia­te type betwe­en the­se two extre­mes. Relatively often, over­bu­ilt (higher at cro­up than at withers) indi­vi­du­als par­ti­cu­lar­ly in mares can be seen. The chest is usu­al­ly well deve­lo­ped and cor­rec­tly rib­bed. The bel­ly is often han­ging which is cau­sed by con­su­ming more rougha­ge. According to the bre­eding pro­gram­me a pri­mi­ti­ve type of Konik pol­ski hor­se with abun­dant mane and tail is desi­ra­ble. Less fine heads and small incor­rect­ness of fore­legs and of hind legs are allo­wed. The stan­dards for height at withers are 130 – 140cm for stal­lions and mares.
    7. Male lines
      The male lines which are distin­gu­ished in the Konik pol­ski bre­ed deri­ve from 6 foun­der stal­lions:
      Liliput line
      This is the oldest and the least deve­lo­ped male line. The foun­der was a mouse‐coloured stal­lion Liliput born in 1918 from the mare Liliputka in Biłgoraj district. Liliput was the first sire intro­du­ced in 1936 into the „wild” herd of Konik pol­ski hor­ses within Prof. Vetulani’s expe­ri­ment on recon­struc­tion of extinct Tarpan hor­se in Białowieża forest.
      Wicek line
      The foun­der Wicek of unk­nown ori­gin was mated to the mare Delta and from this mating the stal­lion Dysk was born in 1931. Dysk sired many descen­dants and due to this stal­lion the Wicek line is regar­ded as the most deve­lo­ped male line within Konik pol­ski bre­ed.
      Goraj line
      The mouse colo­ured foun­der Goraj was born in 1935 in Biłgoraj District. He was bought by a mili­ta­ry com­mis­sion and desi­gna­ted in 1938 for the Konik‐Reserve in Białowieża whe­re he sired three out­stan­ding sons who fur­ther deve­lo­ped the line.
      Myszak line
      The foun­der Myszak was born in 1937 in Wolhymien of Eastern Poland. He was used rela­ti­ve­ly shor­tly in the Konik pol­ski bre­eding during eva­cu­ation of Konik pol­ski studs to Germany during the World War II. He sired the only one son Gazda, born in 1946 that con­ti­nu­ed this line.
      Chochlik line
      The mouse‐coloured foun­der Chochlik born in 1940 in Biłgoraj District, bought as one‐year‐old for the Konik pol­ski stud in Puławy whe­re he was used as sire sin­ce 1943. This line was par­ti­cu­lar­ly deve­lo­ped by Chochlik’s son Lis born in 1957 in Popielno.
      Glejt I line
      This is the youn­gest line in the Konik pol­ski bre­ed distin­gu­ished by the use in the seven­ties in the Racot‐stud of the stal­lion Glejt II the son of Glejt I who was born in 1944 in Biłgoraj District.
    8. Coat colo­ur of Konik pol­ski hor­ses
      In the pure‐bred bre­eding of Konik hor­se, only mouse‐coloured indi­vi­du­als with dor­sal strip and witho­ut whi­te spots or mar­kings are allo­wed. Exceptionally, in mares very small whi­te spots or mar­kings on head (some whi­te hairs, snip, star) are allo­wed tem­po­ra­ri­ly.
      The coat colo­ur can be of the fol­lo­wing tint:
      • Bright mouse‐colour,
      • Mouse‐colour,
      • Dark mouse‐colour,
      • Gray‐dun

      Bright hairs in the mane and tail are allo­wed. Different forms of zebra‐stripes are desi­ra­ble.

  3. Breeding aims
    1. The bre­eding of Konik pol­ski hor­se aims at achie­ving a middle‐sized hor­se of relia­ble cha­rac­ter, cor­rec­tly built, of good con­sti­tu­tion, regu­lar gaits, suita­ble for all‐year‐round loose housing in herds. The Konik pol­ski sho­uld be suita­ble both for riding and as a draft hor­se for recre­atio­nal use for adult people as well as for chil­dren. A stan­dard of height at withers sho­uld be 130 – 140 cm
    2. In the selec­tion, natu­ral resi­stan­ce and immu­ni­ty sho­uld be sup­por­ted by keeping hor­ses the who­le year out­do­ors and redu­cing the keeping in sta­bles. Feeding of rougha­ge is recom­men­ded inste­ad of con­cen­tra­tes. The age at the entry in the Studbook and prin­ci­ples of the per­for­man­ce tests sho­uld be in accor­dan­ce with country’s regu­la­tions howe­ver, taking into acco­unt the guide­li­nes given in the Studbook of Origin of the Konik pol­ski as obli­ga­to­ry accor­ding to the Breeding Programme of the Konik pol­ski.
  4. Studbook
    1. Keeping of the Studbook
      1. In the stud­bo­ok all bre­eding hor­ses are being ente­red which descend from parents ente­red in the main sec­tion of the Konik polski‐Studbook and which ful­fil all requ­ire­ments for ente­ring the stud­bo­ok. All offspring of a mare which ente­red the stud­bo­ok is listed as bre­eding per­for­man­ce of the mare. Breeding hor­ses are accep­ted for entry the stud­bo­ok after con­trol of they ori­gin (paren­ta­ge), taking into acco­unt the sex, age, and bre­eding value eva­lu­ation
      2. A sepa­ra­te parts of the stud­bo­ok are kept for stal­lions and mares
      3. An elec­tro­nic ver­sion of the stud­bo­ok is allo­wed, howe­ver, a sepa­ra­te print‐out is neces­sa­ry
    2. Principles of entry in the Studbook
      1. For the Konik pol­ski hor­ses only the main Studbook is kept (the­re are no divi­sions of the stud­bo­ok)
      2. The Studbook is clo­sed i.e. only stal­lions and mares can enter the stud­bo­ok which stem from parents which have been regi­ste­red in the stud­bo­ok
      3. There is a sepa­ra­te num­be­ring for stal­lions and mares in the stud­bo­ok
  5. Performance tests
    1. In order to pre­se­rve valu­able uti­li­ty tra­its of the Konik pol­ski hor­se per­for­man­ce test sho­uld be con­duc­ted even tho­ugh the country’s bre­eding regu­la­tions do not demand such tests
    2. In order to main­ta­in the quali­ty of the Konik pol­ski hor­se, the offspring of the bre­eding hor­ses sho­uld be also sub­jec­ted to per­for­man­ce tests
    3. Performance tests sho­uld inc­lu­de low scho­ol riding, car­ria­ge test and possi­bly endu­ran­ce test
    4. Performance tests pas­sed in other coun­try are to be accep­ted if they ful­fil the mini­mum stan­dards obli­ga­to­ry in the coun­try of bre­ed ori­gin. The abo­ve men­tio­ned con­cerns also pur­cha­sed or hired stal­lions.
  6. Sport events
    1. As far as possi­ble, bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions sho­uld enco­ura­ge par­ti­ci­pa­tion of bre­eding hor­ses and the­ir offsprion in sport events
    2. Performance of bre­eding hor­ses and the­ir pro­ge­ny in sport events may be regar­ded as addi­tio­nal quali­ty con­trol of the bre­eding work and sho­uld be taken into acco­unt
  7. Final remarks
    1. All bre­eding orga­ni­sa­tions dealing with the Konik pol­ski hor­se are obli­ged to sub­or­di­na­te the­ir bre­eding acti­vi­ty to the fol­lo­wing aims:
      • Maintenance of a tra­di­tio­nal Konik pol­ski bre­ed, who­se exi­sten­ce is endan­ge­red due to the small num­ber of ani­mals and which con­sti­tu­es a valu­able European mate­rial cul­tu­re heri­ta­ge
      • Further deve­lop­ment of the bre­ed in term of the num­ber of hor­ses witho­ut any los­ses of typi­cal featu­res of the Konik pol­ski bre­ed, and impro­ve­ment of dif­fe­rent possi­bi­li­ties of the­ir use
      • Preservation of uni­que featu­res of Konik pol­ski bre­ed witho­ut loosing its gene­tic varia­bi­li­ty
      • Promoting of Konik pol­ski hor­se in the area of bre­eding, sport, recre­ation and cul­tu­re by orga­ni­sa­tion of events at the local, coun­try and/or inter­na­tio­nal level.
    2. Creating or aiming at cre­ating of equ­al con­di­tions for Konik pol­ski bre­eding within own coun­try taking into acco­unt appro­pria­te direc­ti­ves of the European Union.
    3. Harmony in solving pro­blems rela­ted to bre­eding of Konik pol­ski hor­ses on the inter­na­tio­nal level.